Is dendrochronology absolute or relative dating
The raw material that epitomizes Mesopotamian civilization is clay: in the almost exclusively mud-brick architecture and in the number and variety of clay figurines and pottery artifacts, Mesopotamia bears the stamp of clay as does no other civilization, and nowhere in the world but in Mesopotamia and the regions over which its influence was diffused was clay used as the vehicle for cuneiform literature, and cuneiform law can apply only where people had had the idea of using soft clay not only for bricks and jars and for the jar stoppers on which a seal could be impressed as a mark of ownership but also as the vehicle for impressed signs to which established meanings were assigned—an intellectual achievement that amounted to nothing less than the invention of writing.Questions as to what ancient Mesopotamian civilization did and did not accomplish, how it influenced its neighbours and successors, and what its legacy has transmitted are posed from the standpoint of modern civilization and are in part coloured by ethical overtones, so that the answers can only be relative.Consequently,irrigation had been invented, bringing water to large stretches of territory through a widely branching network of canals.Since the ground is extremely fertile and, with irrigation and the necessary drainage, will produce in abundance, southern Mesopotamia became a land of plenty that could support a considerable population.Consequently, the rivers often overflow their banks (and may even change their course) when they are not protected by high dikes.In recent times they have been regulated above Baghdad by the use of escape channels with overflow reservoirs.Consequently, southern Mesopotamia in particular was destined to be a land of trade from the start.Only rarely could “empires” extending over a wider area guarantee themselves imports by plundering or by subjecting neighbouring regions.
During 3,000 years of Mesopotamian civilization, each century gave birth to the next.The cultural superiority of north Mesopotamia, which may have lasted until about 4000 , was finally overtaken by the south when the people there had responded to the challenge of their situation.The present climatic conditions are fairly similar to those of 8,000 years ago.In Mesopotamia, agricultural products and those from stock breeding, fisheries, date palm cultivation, and reed industries—in short, grain, vegetables, meat, leather, wool, horn, fish, dates, and reed and plant-fibre products—were available in plenty and could easily be produced in excess of home requirements to be exported.There are bitumen springs at Hīt (90 miles northwest of Baghdad) on the Euphrates (the Is of Herodotus).
Search for is dendrochronology absolute or relative dating:
An English survey of ruined settlements in the area 30 miles around ancient Hatra (180 miles northwest of Baghdad) has shown that the southern limits of the zone in which agriculture is possible without artificial irrigation has remained unchanged since the first settlement of Al-Jazīrah.