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The electrical telegraph systems, developed in the early 19th century, used simple electrical signals to sent text messages.
In the late 19th century, the wireless telegraphy was developed using radio waves.
The GSM in the US had to use a frequency allocated for private communication services (PCS) – what the ITU frequency régime had blocked for DECT – Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications – 1000-feet range picocell, but survived.
American Personal Communications (APC), the first GSM carrier in America, provided the first text-messaging service in the United States.
It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages (known as MMS) containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji (happy faces, sad faces, and other icons).
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.
Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet connection.
Finnish Radiolinja became the first network to offer a commercial person-to-person SMS text messaging service in 1994.
When Radiolinja's domestic competitor, Telecom Finland (now part of Telia Sonera) also launched SMS text messaging in 1995 and the two networks offered cross-network SMS functionality, Finland became the first nation where SMS text messaging was offered on a competitive as well as on a commercial basis.